Sumaco Napo-Galeras National Park is a protected area in northeastern Ecuador, situated in the provinces of Napo and Orellana in two sectors: the area of the Sumaco volcano and its adjacent areas and the Cordillera de Galeras. In 2010, UNESCO declared the park a Biosphere Reserve.
Sumaco Napo-Galeras National Park is a protected area in northeastern Ecuador, situated in the provinces of Napo and Orellana in two sectors: the area of the Sumaco volcano and its adjacent areas (190,562 ha or 470,889 acres) and the Cordillera de Galeras (14,687 ha or 36,292 acres). In 2010, UNESCO declared the park a Biosphere Reserve.
It includes the Sumaco and Pan de Azúcar volcanoes as well as the Black and Galeras hills. It is made up of two mountain systems isolated from the Andes: the Sumaco volcano massif and the Galeras mountain range. The Sumaco Volcano (3,900 m or 12,795 ft above sea level) is a rather isolated peak lying to the east of the main Andean Mountain Range.
The area conserves the high basins of several Amazonian tributaries of the Quijos, Coca and Napo. There are numerous watercourses in the area, such as the Suno, Coca, Pitayacu and Pusuno Rivers.
Sumaco Biosphere Reserve covers a large variety of ecosystems from the tropical highlands-Andean paramour to the tropical Amazon plains. Moist broadleaf forest with an abundance of palms is the major vegetation type. The area includes well-preserved corridors of habitats from the lowlands to above the tree line.
There is a highly diverse fauna. Mammals include spectacled bear (Tremarctos ornatus), Jaguar (Panthera onca) and several species of bats. Birds include torrent duck (Merganetta armata) and Andean cock-of-the-rock (Rupicola peruviana).
There are about 100,000 (2001) people living in the area, including indigenous communities. The main economic activities are coffee plantations, agriculture, fisheries, and production of naranjilla, use of natural resources in forest, agroforestry and tourism.