The Chapada Diamantina National Park is located in the Brazilian state of Bahia. The Chapada Diamantina is a plateau bounded by cliffs which form a watershed, draining on one side into the São Francisco River and on the other into the De Contas River and Paraguaçu River.
The Chapada Diamantina National Park is located in the Chapada Diamantina region of the state of Bahia, Brazil. The terrain is rugged, and mainly covered by flora of the Caatinga biome. The park covers 152,142 hectares (375,950 acres) and is administered by the Chico Mendes Institute for Biodiversity Conservation.
The Chapada Diamantina is a plateau bounded by cliffs in central Bahia. Altitudes in the plateau typically vary from 500 to 1,000 m (1,600 to 3,300 ft). In the more mountainous parts there are several peaks of 1,600 to 1,800 m (5,200 to 5,900 ft), and a few over 2,000 m (6,600 ft). The plateau forms a watershed, draining on one side into the São Francisco River and on the other into the De Contas River and Paraguaçu River.
The park lies in the rugged Sincorá Range in the east of the plateau, an area of folded and heavily eroded structures. The range is elongated in a north-south direction, and has an average width of 25 km (16 mi). The highest point of the state is in the park, the 2,036 m (6,680 ft) Pico do Barbado. The range forces moist air moving west from sea upward which causes higher levels of rainfall, particularly in the east. There are many systems of caves formed by the rivers of the region.
Vegetation includes typical Caatinga xerophytic formations at altitudes from about 500 to 900 m (1,600 to 3,000 ft), Atlantic Forest vegetation along the watercourses, meadows and rocky fields higher up. Endemic flora include Adamantinia miltonioides, Cattleya elongata, Cattleya tenuis, Cattleya x tenuata, Cleites libonni and Cleistes metallina.
The hooded visorbearer (Augastes lumachellus) hummingbird is endemic. There are few large mammals, but many species of small mammals, reptiles, amphibians, birds and insects.
Protected birds in the reserve include white-necked hawk (Buteogallus lacernulatus), Chaco eagle (Buteogallus coronatus), Bahia tyrannulet (Phylloscartes beckeri), ochre-marked parakeet (Pyrrhura cruentata) and Bahia spinetail (Synallaxis whitneyi).
Other protected species include Barbara Brown's titi (Callicebus barbarabrownae), cougar (Puma concolor), jaguar (Panthera onca), oncilla (Leopardus tigrinus), giant armadillo (Priodontes maximus) and giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla).